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The Kentucky Derby: a historical look at Horse Racing’s Finest
Rita R. Powers

The Kentucky Derby, the premier horse race of all horse races,
has a checkered history that spans 130 years. At first, it
struggled to survive, owing its success to the men and women
who created and sustained it.

The dream started with a young man, Col. M. Lewis Clark,
grandson of Gen. William Clark, the explorer. He visited
England and France in 1872 and decided that he would start a
racetrack in Kentucky to revive the state’s horse breeding
industry. Development began soon after the trip on 80 acres he
obtained from his two uncles, John and Henry Churchill. Funding
was through membership subscriptions that sold at $100 a piece.
The track was officially opened on May 17, 1875. Four races
were held that day and the winner of the featured race, the
Kentucky Derby, was a horse named Aristides. Two African
Americans, Oliver Lewis and Ansel Williamson, trained and
jockeyed Aristides. Throughout the years, the Kentucky Derby
became the focal event for Churchill Downs.

Eventually, the Kentucky State Fair held activities at
Churchill Downs, but the main attraction was then and still is
today betting on that special horse to win. In 1875, the prize
for winning was $2,850. The purse jumped to $5,460 in 1890 with
Riley leading the pack as the thoroughbreds crossed the finish
line. The winner of the Kentucky Derby in 1896 was Ben Brush
with the first-place prize money totaling $4,850. The winner’s
purse would remain at that figure for the next 17 years.

In 1913 there was a slight increase in prize money, but the
following year the winner’s proceeds skyrocketed to $9,125.
That same year Old Rosebud won by a hefty 8 lengths, setting a
track record of 2:03 for the 2/5-mile oval. By 1915, the Derby
had developed a reputation as a premier sporting event due to a
3-year publicity push. The Golden Jubilee Derby in 1924 featured
a purse of $52,775. Through the years, the prize money continued
to grow. In 1970, Secretariat became the first Triple Crown
winner in 25 years, with a Derby win timed at 1 minute, 59
seconds. The net for Secretariat’s owners was a whopping
$127,800. In May of 2004 the winner of the Derby took home a
record $5,854,800.

While Churchill Downs was the hub of betting, racing, and other
activities, it went through leadership changes quite frequently.
Col. M. Lewis Clark and his Louisville Jockey Club started the
annual show in 1875. Although the first Kentucky Derby had been
a success, there were financial problems. In an attempt to
provide a more secure financial situation, the race was
incorporated under the New Louisville Jockey Club on November
24, 1894. William F. Schulte became president and Col. M. Lewis
Clark was appointed the presiding judge.

Tragedy struck with the suicide of Clark in Memphis, Tennessee,
on April 22, 1899. Financial problems plagued the track again
and former mayor, Charles Grainger, Charlie Price, and Matt J.
Winn took over on October 1, 1902. The first sign of
profitability was in 1903. The Kentucky Jockey Club took over
all 4 racetracks in Kentucky in 1918-1919. Churchill
Downs-Latona became the legal name of the track in 1937 after
the sale of several of the other racetracks. October 6,1949,
marked the death of Col. Matt J. Winn, the man credited with
making the Kentucky Derby the most prestigious race in the
world. Bill Corum took over the helm and modernized the track.

The Kentucky Derby was televised for the first time on May
3,1952. In December of 1958, Bill Corum died and was replaced
by Wathen Knebelkamp. Under new direction, Churchill Downs
underwent more renovation. Also, the City of Louisville tried
to purchase the racetrack, but the aldermen had the final word
and wouldn’t allow it. Around 1968 there was another battle for
ownership of Churchill Downs and this time the Derby Protection
Group became the highest bidder.

Lynn Stone was named the new president in 1970. He was
successful in fending off 2 more attempts to take over the
racetrack. But when financial problems arose, Stone resigned in
August 1984, to be replaced by Thomas Meeker. Through the good
leadership of Meeker, Chairman Warner Jones, and the current
Chairman William Farish, Churchill Downs and the Kentucky Derby
have flourished.

Besides the controversy related to takeovers and changes in
leadership, there were legal issues as well. In 1908, betting
began to be a problem to the point that the Louisville city
administration was cracking down on bookmakers. A loophole made
it possible to continue the parimutuel betting that Col. Clark
had imported in 1875 from France. Problems arose again and
there was a government ban on horseracing in 1945, but VE Day
changed everything and the Derby continued on June 9th of that

As was noted earlier, African Americans have played a key role
since the first race and have made major contributions
throughout the derby’s history. Alonzo Lonnie Clayton was an
early jockey who, at in 1892 the age of 15, rode Azra, making
him the youngest jockey to achieve victory. Erskin Henderson
was the 6th African American to win the Kentucky Derby, riding
Joe Cotton in 1885. Babe Hurd rode Appollo in 1882 and won.
George Garrett Lewis, another African American, jockeyed Fonso
in the 1880 Derby. These are 4 of 15 African Americans who won
the Kentucky Derby and have their names enshrined in the
Kentucky Derby Museum.

In addition, women jockeys have been active in the Derby; the
five who have run for the roses are Patti Cooksey, Diane Crump,
Julie Krone, Andrea Seefeldt, and Rosemary Homeister. Also, It
has been fairly common throughout the years that women have
been owners.

The Kentucky Derby and Churchill Downs have become the hallmark
of first-class horseracing by dealing with adversity and making
adjustments. The Derby is a horserace unlike any other in terms
of prestige, excitement, and quality competitors. Those who have
played an important role in making the Derby a yearly tradition
include the jockeys, trainers, breeders, administrators,
owners, and those magnificent creatures, the horses that have
run for the roses for 130 years. The brainchild of Col. M.
Lewis Clark is much more than a horserace. It is an American

About the Author: Rita R. Powers sponsored by . Stubhub sells sports tickets:  concert tickets, theater tickets and
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